This synoptic essay presents the development of Philippine artistic and architectural conventions during the early modern period. Using a regional approach, it traces the major influences of the three traditions that grew in parallel, as well as the rich and diverse artistic productions that arose out of Islamization, Hispanization, and the indigenous milieu. Although the development of the arts is traced from the visual discourse of indigenous culture with two exogenous forms of Western thought and religions, historical circumstances demonstrated that these cross-cultural exchanges did not completely erase native agency or its innate sense of authochthonous visuality or ways of seeing.